# A biography of evangelista torricelli

Later, Castelli appointed Torricelli to replace him as the teacher in mathematics, mechanics, hydraulics, and astronomy in the University College of Sapienza.

## Torricelli equation

One of the biggest and most controversial debates in those days was about the existence of vacuums, a possibility that had been refuted by earlier scientists such as Aristotle. Evangelista Torricelli was born on October 15, , in Faenza, province of Ravenna, Italy, and grew up in a humble family. He supposed, therefore, that if all the resistances to motion were nil, the jet would reach the level of the liquid. But not even Barrow understood the importance of the theorem, which was first demonstrated by Newton. Undoubtedly Torricelli was one of the most productive and promising mathematicians of the seventeenth century. The water could not stay in the tube due to the incredible amount of pressure being exerted on it by the air above. Torricelli gave the most brilliant application of it in by proving a new theorem, a gem of the mathematical literature of the time. The fame that Torricelli acquired as a geometer increased his correspondence with Italian scientists and with a number of French scholars Carcavi, Mersenne, F. Bologna, —vols. After overcoming his initial mistrust of the new method, Torricelli used it as a heuristic instrument for the discovery of new propositions, which he then demonstrated by the classical methods. Unfortunately, after three months of coexistence with Galileo in Florence, Galileo passed away. But like the majority of his contemporaries, he believed that an element does not have weight in itself; hence, on the basis of the ascertained weight of air, he was unable to deduce pressures within atmospheric air. Copyright The Gale Group, Inc. Torricelli spent the next 10 years in study. After his father died, between and he traveled to Rome with his whole family his mother and two brothers to study with the Benedictine friar, Benedetto Castelli.

The geometry of indivisibles was also applied by Torricelli to the determination of the center of gravity of figures. All rights reserved.

The invention of the barometer is considered by most to be his biggest contribution to science. He was the first man to create a sustained vacuum, which led to the discovery of the barometer.

Torricelli set up an experiment involving glass tubes filled with mercury as it was denser than water and thus became the first person to create a sustained vacuum.

In addition, his demonstration of the existence of emptiness included the clarity that it is not possible to find it in nature but it is necessary to generate it artificially.

## A biography of evangelista torricelli

Torricelli observes that if the regular polygon has equal sides; one of its axes of symmetry joins two opposite vertices or the midpoints of two opposite sides; if, on the other hand, it does not have equal sides, one of its axes of symmetry joins a vertex with the midpoint of the opposite side. Still using curved indivisibles, Torricelli found, among other things, the volume of the solid limited by two plane surfaces and by any lateral surface, in particular the volume of barrels. Torricelli intended to coordinate all these results, communicated by letter to various mathematicians in and , in a single work entitled De infinitis hyperbolis, but he died before it could be completed. In , he demonstrated the existence of atmospheric pressure and developed the basis for the barometer. In his uncle sent him to Rome to study mathematics and natural philosophy under Benedetto Castelli, professor of mathematics at the Collegio di Sapienza, who had been one of Galileo's pupils. This observation is said to have reminded him of Galileo's law of the velocity of a falling body, and it suggested to him that he should treat the jet of water as a series of freely falling particles, each with a speed determined by the original height of the water surface in the tank— Torricelli's law of efflux. The first part of De sphaera et solidis sphaeralibus, compiled around , studies figures arising through rotation of a regular polygon inscribed in or circumscribed about a circle around one of its axes of symmetry already mentioned by Archimedes. The second section of the volume deals with the motion of projectiles, about which more will be said later. He corresponded with Galileo and studied his writings.

On 11 Junehe famously wrote in a letter to Michelangelo Ricci : Noi viviamo sommersi nel fondo d'un pelago d'aria.

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