Aids in sub saharan africa essay

Aids in africa 2018

Such behavior includes increasing the frequency of, or risks taken during, transactional sex, or expanding one's sexual network to acquire informal insurance against future shocks. The magnitude of the problem of coercive sex is all but unknown, as are the circumstances under which forced sex or rape takes place. The ritual is also practiced in other situations, such as after a birth the mother, regardless of marital status, has unprotected sex with a man believing the act will cleanse the baby and encourage health; after miscarriage; and where a man has acquired a boat for fishing, a woman has sex with the man to cleanse away evil spirits which may capsize the boat [ 36 ]. These reasons are why AIDS are so far incurable for humanity. This report will analyse the current situation using up to date sources from articles, books and the World Wide Web Biological factors also influence the spread of the epidemic by increasing or decreasing susceptibility to the virus, altering the infectiousness of those with HIV, and hastening the progression of infection to disease and death. It has now become a human tragedy in many areas of the world, but most affected is sub Saharan Africa. Women who marry as adolescents are also more likely to receive less formal education and have less exposure to HIV prevention messages [ 38 , 39 ]. The population is predominantly young, in sharp contrast with the age structure in developed countries, and many of the behavioral factors associated with HIV transmission are common among young people. Moreover, given the chronic underreporting and under-diagnosis in developing countries, the actual number of AIDS cases may be four times as high. UNAIDS indicates that in the number of annual new infections went down for the first time relative to the previous year. Although these forms of aid have overall failing track records, targeted developmental assistance has been historically successful. For example, the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief has focused more on abstinence and fidelity than condoms [30] while Uganda has had a more balanced approach to the three elements. With the implementation of various interventions aimed at controlling HIV transmission, periodic monitoring of STD and HIV prevalence and incidence among selected populations is essential both for assessment of the impact of these programs and for decision making on program design and implementation. Common practices throughout the region consist of patriarchal gender roles.

Biological factors also influence the spread of the epidemic by increasing or decreasing susceptibility to the virus, altering the infectiousness of those with HIV, and hastening the progression of infection to disease and death. Traditionally, aid has come in the form of military aid, and large international financial transactions.

By the s, about 2, people in Africa may have had HIV, [15] including people in Kinshasa whose tissue samples from and have been preserved and studied retrospectively.

History of aids in africa

After being infected with the virus it progressively interferes and eventually destroys the immune system's ability to fight the anti-genes. This epidemiologic diversity not only reflects differences in sexual and other behaviors, but also suggests that the epidemic has not reached an equilibrium in most areas. The high levels of incidence that drove expansion of the epidemic during the s could not be sustained indefinitely. So I decided it would be a great topic to investigate. Unfortunately there were other rumors being spread by elders in Cameroon. The change from virginity to frequent unprotected sex increases their risk of HIV infection. Men have been forced to become migrant workers in urban areas. Sex becomes a way to pass time due to a lack of recreational facilities [ 32 ]. She continues to feel the same as she did when she found out, dirty and ashamed In the same year, 1. The best assessment is that, while there are some hopeful signs, overall the epidemic continues to rage throughout the Africa region. Specific sexual practices—dry sex, oral sex, and anal sex being but a few examples—may impede the success of particular interventions, yet information about such practices is necessary for encouraging behavioral change. Ebola can only be spread through bodily fluids.

Unfortunately there were other rumors being spread by elders in Cameroon. Considerable progress has been made in biomedical, behavioral and structural strategies for HIV prevention with attendant challenges of developing appropriate HIV prevention packages which take into consideration the socioeconomic and cultural context of women in society at large.

English Composition II A.

aids in africa essay

There may be violent consequences if a woman were to take the initiative in sex, suggest condom use or refuse sexual advances [ 31 ]. Here, the needs and desires of women are not considered significant and often women play no part in sexual decision making, nor are they allowed to express their sexuality [ 3132 ].

Household surveys also exclude migrant labourers, who are a high risk group.

Aids in sub saharan africa essay

The most optimistic reading of the results of these prevention efforts is that they have been less successful than was at first hoped. Sex becomes a way to pass time due to a lack of recreational facilities [ 32 ]. Failure has arisen from the problematic nature of the administration of the aid. Such networking studies encompass the role of migration, transportation systems, and local markets. To put these figures in context, more than 60 percent of the people living with the infection reside in Africa. Although much emphasis has been placed on "high-risk" behaviors associated with multiple, sequential, short-term relationships, there is a growing body of research suggesting that concurrent multiple partnerships, including those that are stable and long term common in many African settings , may contribute substantially to HIV transmission. Men make the bulk of the decisions, whereas women simply take care of the house and children. To control for the endogeneity of education, I exploit a change in Tanzania's national policy for secondary education to identify exogenous variation in schooling. Do the aggressors or the victims share characteristics that might suggest a path for preventive or protective interventions? He was a Country Director for the German Development Service in Niger so has first hand experience of the problems facing impoverished African countries.

This has further impoverished African populations, with increases in unemployment rates and the decrease in provision of social services, including education and health services.

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