Introduction to networking

With switches, each host can transmit data anytime. This layer refers to higher-level protocols used by most applications for network communication. Multicast — Communication from one host to few hosts only. So networks decrease cost, time, and effort and thereby increase productivity. However with a network, the printer can be shared between many different computers.

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More or less the same as telephones do or, in a very rough sense, like two kids speaking into tin cans connected by a string. Protocols[ edit ] A protocol is the language that computers use to talk to each other.

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Figure shows the most basic form of a network. For more than 2 hosts to be networked, you require a network device such as a hub. Routers do not allow broadcasts to be transmitted across different networks it interconnects and hence effectively breaks up a broadcast domain. Dial up modems were one of the earliest forms of access to the internet, and while it has been largely overtaken by more modern connection methods, dial-up modems are still essential in remote areas where DSL or Fiber has not been rolled out. IP performs the basic task of getting packets of data from source to destination. This is where IP Internet Protocol comes in. If they communicate with electrical signaling, so the data is traveling "at the speed of light", why does it take so long to send a big file across the network? All hosts connected to it will receive any broadcast sent out in this domain. They only flood out a broadcast packet. Also, unlike hubs, switches do not flood every packet out all ports.

Exam Alert: Remember that switches break collision domains and routers break broadcast domains. Figure Network with a Hub A hub is a network device that repeats information received from a host to all other connects hosts.

Introduction to networking pdf download

Figure shows three switched networks interconnected by a router. Letters and packages go into one Post Office and get routed from that office to a distribution center. We recommend Ethernet for both home and office networking. Figure shows three hosts connected to a hub. For more information, please select the Ethernet link on the left. They also help in resource optimization by helping to share resources. This layer is responsible for encoding and transmitting data over network communications media. This means that they see it as its happening.

On the internet, this would be your computers MAC address. When the hub receives this message; it will relay the message to both HostB and HostC.

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To overcome these, switches are used instead of hubs. However, the speed at which you connect to the internet can be influenced by the type of modem you are using, as well as the media that is used to transfer data over.

introduction to networking course
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Introduction to Networks