Robert Nozick 's book Anarchy, State, and Utopiawhich won a National Book Awardresponded to Rawls from a libertarian perspective and gained academic respectability for libertarian viewpoints.
Within academic philosophy, Quine is perhaps best known for his work in formal, mathematical logic and with his doctrine of "the indeterminacy of translation. Though not known widely outside of academic circles, two thinkers in particular wrote passionately for re-conceiving philosophical concerns and positions along Darwinian lines, John Fiske and Chauncey Wright Like Peirce and James, Dewey engaged in academic philosophical writing, publishing many essays and books on metaphysics, epistemology, and value theory.
The Constitution was itself fashioned by a deliberative body which resembles much more the Congress than it does either the presidency or the judiciary.
While there might not be eternal, absolute standards or criteria for, say, moral judgment, it is also the case that there are criteria that transcend subjective preferences, since there are facts about the contingencies and problems we face.
Putnam's Sons, Though Hegel 's philosophy of history is similar to Immanuel Kant 's, and Karl Marx 's theory of revolution towards the common good is partly based on Kant's view of history—Marx declared that he was turning Hegel's dialectic, which was "standing on its head", "the right side up again".
Current emphasis on "commoditization of the everyday" has been decried by many contemporary theorists, some of them arguing the full brunt of it would be felt in ten years' time.